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Лисянский Юрий Фёдорович - Voyage round the world...

Лисянский Юрий Фёдорович - Voyage round the world...


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A

VOYAGE ROUND THE WORLD,

IN

THE YEARS 1803, 4, 5, & 6;

PERFORMED, BY ORDER OF HIS IMPERIAL MAJESTY

ALEXANDER THE FIRST, EMPEROR OF RUSSIA,

IN

THE SHIP NEVA,

BY

UREY LISIANSKY,

CAPTAIN IN THE RUSSIAN NAVY,

AND

KNIGHT OF THE ORDERS OF ST. GEORGE AND ST. VLADIMER.

  

LONDON:

PRINTED FOR JOHN BOOTH, DUKE STREET, PORTLAND PLACE; AND LONGMAN, HURST, REES, ORME, & BROWN, PATERNOSTER ROW BY & HAMILTON, WEYBRIDGE, SURREY.

1814.

  

TO

HIS IMPERIAL MAJESTY

ALEXANDER THE FIRST.

  
   Sire,
   The veneration and gratitude which prompted me to dedicate to your Most Gracious Majesty the History of my Voyage, in the Russian language, again impel me to offer to your Sacred Person the present Edition of it in English.
  
   Deign, Sire, to accept a Work that will convey to the British Nation the knowledge of the paternal care for the welfare of your subjects, which so eminently distinguishes Your Majesty, under whose auspices the Russian Flag was first carried round the Globe.
  
   I am,
   Sire,
   Your Imperial Majesty's
   Most devoted and most faithful Subject,

UREY LISIANSKY.

   London, March 25, 1814.
  

CONTENTS.

  
   Preface
  

CHAPTER I.

PASSSAG FROM CRONSTADT TO FALMOUTH.

  
   Departure of the two Vessels. Russian Custom on taking leave of the Port-admiral. Arrival in Copenhagen Roads. Stay at Copenhagen. Method of purifying confined Air. Vessel of a curious Construction. Departure from Copenhagen. Separation of the two Ships in a Storm in the North Sea. Arrival at Falmouth
  

CHAPTER II.

PASSAGE FROM FALMOUTH TO TENERIFFE.

  
   Departure from Falmouth. Remarkable Meteor. Method of preventing Bilge-water. Precautions against Disease. Sublime Appearance of the Peak of Teneriffe from the Sea. Fortunate Escape from a Hurricane. Account of the Towns of Laguna and Santa Cruz, in the Island of Teneriffe. Bad Anchorage of the Bay of Santa Cruz. A Mummy, supposed to have been embalmed by the ancient Inhabitants of Teneriffe, given to our Ambassador
  

CHAPTER III.

PASSAGE FROM TENRRIFFS TO THE ISLAND OF ST. CATHARINE.

  
   Departure from Teneriffe. Precautions for Health on entering the warm Latitudes. Amusements of the Crew. Make the Island of St. Antony, one of the Cape de Verd Islands. Variation of the Chronometers. Impolicy of passing through the Cape de Verd Islands in going to the Cape of Good Hope. Rejoicings on Crossing the Line. Importance of attending to the Sea Currents. Seek in vain for the Island of Ascension. Cape Frio. Island of Alvaredo. Singular Peril of the two Ships. Arrival and Stay at St. Catharine. Account of that Island, its Productions, and Inhabitants
  

CHAPTER IV.

PASSAGE FROM THE ISLAND OF ST. CATHARINE TO EASTER ISLAND.

  
   Departure from St. Catharine. Danger of the Neva from striking upon the Body of a dead Whale. Change of Climate, and bad Weather. Perceive Staten Land. Currents. Supposed Difficulty of passing Cape Horn erroneous. Advice to Navigators doubting that Cape. The Neva and Nadejda separate in a Fog. The Neva proceeds alone for Easter Island. Arrival there. Survey of the Coasts. Account of the Inhabitants. Latitude and Population of the Island different from what Captain Cook makes them
  

CHAPTER V.

PASSAGE FROM EASTER ISLAND TO THE WASHINGTON ISLANDS.

  
   Departure of the Neva from Easter Island. State of the Winds. Make the Marquesas. Take a Survey of this Group. Visited by Canoes from the Island of Noocahwa, one of the Washington Islands. The two Ships meet. Anchor in the Bay of Tayohaia. Receive a Visit from the King of the Bay. Attempts of the Women to gain Admittance on Board. Traffic for Provisions. Further Visits of the King, with some of his Relations. Trick played us by His Majesty. Misunderstanding with the Inhabitants. Visit the King, with Captain Krusenstern. Palace. Burying-ground. A Grappling stolen from one of our Boats. The King dines on Board the Neva. The Neva visited by the Queen. Excursion to Jegawe Bay. Excellent Anchorage there. Prepare for Departure from Noocahiva. Further Account of the Religion, Government, and Customs of the Inhabitants
  

CHAPTER VI.

PASSAGE FROM THE WASHINGTON ISLANDS TO THE SANDWICH ISLANDS.

  
   Nautical Difficulties on leaving Noocahiva. Search in vain for an unknown Land, seen by Marchand. Surprise of the Crew at the Sight of a Shark which toe caught. Make the Island of Owyhee. The Nadejda leaves us to proceed to Camchatca. Anchor in the Bay of Carocacoa. Traffic with the Inhabitants. Reason for recusing to admit Women on Board. Excursion on Shore with the Chirikof the Bay. Habitations. Temples. Visited by Mr. Young, who governs the Island in the Absence of the King. Village of Tavaroa. Leave Owyhee. Island of Otooway. Visited by if King. Island of Onihoo
  

CHAPTER VII.

ACCOUNT OF THE SANDWICH ISLANDS.

  
   Govermnmt of the Sandwich Islands. Particulars of the Institution of Taboo. Division of Thne. Priests. Human Sacrifices. Funereal Customs. Nobility. Customs as to Eating. Advance of the Inhabitants towards Civilisation. Reign of the present Sing Hamamea. Mr. Young. Cattle. Feathered Tribe. Division of Owyhee into Provinces, Districts, and Farms
  

CHAPTER VIII.

PASSAGE FROM THE SANDWICH ISLANDS TO CADIACK AND SITCA SOUND.

  
   Unfavourable State of the Weather on quitting the Sandwich Islands. Make Cheerircoff Island. Pass the Islands of Sithoonack and Toohidack. Visited by Bidarkas from Cadiack. Danger of the Ship from the Unskilfulness of the Pilot. Anchor in the Harbour of St. Paul. Accept a Proposal of assisting the Commander-in-chief of the Hussion Settlements against the Sitcom. Delayed by contrary Winds. Proceed for Sitca. Arrive in Cross Bay. Cautious Conduct of a Sit can Boat. Visited by Boats from the Company's Ships, the Alexander and Catharine. Find the Commander-in-chief absent. Cautious Conduct of other Native Sitcom. Endeavour in vain to take a Boat in which was the Son of our principal Enemy. Skill of the Sitcom in the Use of Fire-Arms. The Commander-in-chif arrives. Curiosities found by him. Aleutian Tents, Hunters, and Dances. Take Possession of a Settlement of the Enemy. Overtures on the Part of the Sitcans. Attack the Sitcoms, and are repulsed by them. Fresh Overtures. Flight of the Enemy from their Fort. Horrible Massacre of Infants previous to their Flight. Fort described. Loss sustained by the Russian Party in the Contest with the Sitcans. Sea-Lions killed by our Sportsmen. One of our Fishermen shot. Fabulous Origin of the Sitcan Nation. Eloquence of their Toyons
  

CHAPTER IX.

RETURN TO THE ISLAND OF CADIACK, TO PASS THE WINTER.

  
   Particulars of our Run from Sitca to Cadiack. Moor the Ship for the Winter. Winter Amusements. State of the Weather. Set out to explore the eastern Part of Cadiack. Settlement of Ihack. Conversation with the Chief. New volcanic Island. Visited by an old Shaman, or Wizard. Bay of Ihack, Bay of Kiluden, and Settlement of Oohasheck. Land at a Settlement, that has only Women and Children. Curiosities at Drunkard's Bay. Harbour of Three-Saints. Fugitive Settlement. Account of Mr. Shelechoff. Huts appropriated for Women. Curiosities at Cape Bay. Tea and Supper in a Barabara. Stupidity of the Aleutians. Singular Custom on the Death of Relatives. Tame Eagle. Mountain tumbled into the Sea by an Earthquake. Straits of Sulthidack. Female Surgeon. Return to the Harbour of St. Paul. Explore the western Part of Cadiack. Account of Cook's River. Intelligence respecting the Russian Settlement of Nooscha
  

CHAPTER X.

DESCRIPTION OF THE ISLAND OF CADIACK.

  
   Climate of the Island. Plants. Wild Beasts. Birds. Number of Inhabitants. Customs. Dress. Food. Marriages. Burials. Manner of catching Fish, wild Animals, and Birds. Instruments used for the Purpose. Shamans. Games. Building of Bidarkas. Building of Barabaras. Filthiness of the Inhabitants. Nature of the Government
  

CHAPTER XI.

SECOND PASSAGE FROM CADIACK TO SITCA.

  
   Feelings of the Russian Inhabitants on our leaving Cadiack. Arrive at New Archangel Improved State of this Settlement. Account of the Destruction of the old Settlement. Explore the Coast round Mount Edgecumbe. Sitcan Embassy, and Ceremonies attending it. Excursion to the Top of Mount Edgecumbe. Arrival, at New Archangel, of another would-be Ambassador. Hot Baths. Plan of the ensuing Course of our Voyage
  

CHAPTER XII.

DESCRIPTION OF THE SITCA ISLANDS.

  
   Reason of this Group of Islands being so denominated. Advantageous Situation of the new Russian Settlement. Productions of these Islands. Climate. People. Dress. Character. Food. Houses. Canoes. Custom of burning the dead. Arts. Tribes or Casts. Religion. Power of the Toyons. Custom respecting Females of cutting the Lip when they arrive at Womanhood
  

CHAPTER XIII.

PASSAGE FROM SITCA SOUND TO CANTON.

  
   State of the Weather on leaving Sitca. Number of Sick from Fatigue. Precautions for future Health. Ill Effect from the Use of Bread. Curious Shells. Clouds mistaken for Land. New Disappointments as to the Discovery of Land. Danger of the Ship from grounding on a coral Bank. Discover a new Island. Particulars relating to it. Discover a new Bank. Limit the Crew in their Allowance of Bread. Advice respecting the westerly Winds in the Southern Ocean. Make the Islands of Saypan and Tinian. Encounter a Hurricane. Putrid State of the Ship's Cargo. Less sustained by it. Enter the Chinese Seas. Arrive at Macao, and meet Captain Krusenstern. Pirates. Macao described. Proceed to Whampoa to dispose of the Neva's Cargo. Chinese Customs relative to Commerce. Repair of the Neva. The Nadgda and Neva detained by Order of the Chinese Government. Services rendered by Mr. Drummond in this Business. The Ships released
  

CHAPTER XIV.

DESCRIPTION OF CANTON.

  
   Houses. Population. Commerce. Despotic and mercenary Character of those in Authority. Productions. Wretchedness of the lower Class of Inhabitants. Sumptuous Fare of the Rich. Customs as to eating. Dress. Character. Religion. Temples. Military Force. Boats. Laws. Country-house cf a Mandarin. Price of Provision. Weights and Measures
  

CHAPTER XV.

PASSAGE FROM CANTON TO CRONSTADT.

  
   Departure of the Nadejda and Neva from Canton. Islands and Straits in the Chinese Seas. Advice to Navigators respecting them. Islands of Two Brothers. Make the Islands of Java and Sumatra. Erroneous Situation of several Places rectified. One of the Crew of the Neva dies. Strait of Sunda. The two Ships separate. Navigation round the Cape of Good Hope. Currents. Make the Western Islands. Pass immense Quantities of Sea-weeds. Arrival and Stay at Portsmouth. Arrive at Cronstadt. The Ship visited by the Emperor Alexander and the Empress-mother. Honours and Rewards conferred on the Officers and Crew
  

APPENDIX.

  
   No. I. A Vocabulary of the Language of Noocahiva
   II. A Vocabulary of the Language of the Sandwich Islands
   III. A Vocabulary of the Language of the Islands of Cadiack and Oonalashca, the Bay of Kenay, and Sitca Sound
   IV. Tables of the Route of the Neva, during the Years 1803,4, 5, & 6: - From the Time of its leaving Europe to its Return
   Table I. Passage from Falmouth to Teneriffe
   II. Passage from Teneriffe to the Island of St. Catharine
   III. Passage from the Island of St. Catharine to Easter Island
   IV. Passage from Easter Island to the Washington Islands
   V. Passage from the Washington Islands to the Sandwich Islands
   VI. Passage from the Sandwich Islands to the Island of Cadiack
   VIL Passage front the Island of Cadiack to Sitca or Norfolk Sound
   VIII. Passage from Sitca or Norfolk Sound, to the Island of Cadiack
   IX. Passage from the Island of Cadiack to Sitca or Norfolk Sound
   X. Passage from Sitca or Norfolk Sound to Canton
   XI. Passage from Canton to Portsmouth
  

PREFACE.

  
   The Russian American Company, {This Company was established in the reign of the empress Catharine the Second, for the purpose of giving solidity and effect to the fur trade; and the better to promote those purposes, all the islands lying between Camchatca and the Russian part of the north-west coast of America, were granted to them in perpetuity. His present majesty, Alexander the First, has extended the privileges of the Company, and graciously declared himself their immediate patron.} having experienced great difficulty in supplying their colonies on. the north-west coast of America with. all kinds of provisions and necessaries, on account of the length and tediousness of the journey by land to Ochotsk, resolved to try if the conveyance by sea would not prove more favourable to their views. A plan was accordingly framed of an expedition from Cronstadt round Cape Horn for the purpose of ascertaining the practicability of this project, and was laid before the then minister of commerce, count Roomantsoff, and admiral Mordwinoff, minister of the marine. This plan being approved of by them, was presented to his Imperial Majesty for his sanction, who extended the objects of the voyage, by commanding, that it should be converted into a voyage of discovery and circumnavigation; and that, at the same time, a Russian ambassador should be carried out to Japan. Two ships, the Nadejda and Neva, were accordingly ordered to be equipped. The command of the Nadejda, and the expedition in general, was conferred on captain Krusenstern, who was also directed to conduct the Russian ambassador and his suite to the court of Jeddo. The Author of the following narrative had the honour to be appointed to the command of the second ship, the Neva, with instructions to proceed to Cadiack, and the north-west coast of America.
   Thus, for the first time, was the voyage round the globe undertaken and carried into effect by the government of Russia. On the return of the expedition to Cronstadt, a separate account of the voyage of each vessel, with an atlas of charts and engravings, was ordered to be printed at the expense of the emperor. A translation of the first two volumes of the narrative of captain Krusenstern has already appeared in English.
   The British public may justly inquire into the claims of the present work, on the same subject, to general attention. They are as follow: - From the different destination of the two vessels on their arrival in the Pacific Ocean, and from their frequent and unavoidable separation, it fell to the lot of the Author, to visit, without his companion, the Easter and Sandwich Islands, to pass more than one whole year on the island of Cadiack and at Sitca or Norfolk Sound, and to discover an island and a shoal, hitherto unknown, but of no small importance to the navigation of the South Sea. During the time the two ships were in company, the mere journal of each must necessarily be similar, and some occurrences may have been noticed in common by both; but, even in that case, the Author of the present work trusts, that his observations will seldom be found to be a mere repetition of those already before the public, as the same objects are often viewed under different aspects by different men, conformably to their various education, dispositions, and character. Even where the descriptions coincide, the coincidence may not be wholly useless, as affording an evidence to the accuracy of both observers.
   With a view to render the narrative of this volume more interesting to the general as well as to the professional reader, such a style of relation has been attempted, as, it is hoped, may induce the former not to throw it aside as a mere naval log-book; while the seaman will probably conceive it entitled to his attention, from the many nautical observations interspersed, as well as the charts and drawings giving new light to the hydrography of the seas. For the fidelity of these charts, the Author holds himself strictly responsible, having drawn them from an actual survey.
   It has been observed by an English writer of great reputation, {Addison.} that a reader peruses a book with more pleasure when he knows something of the author. In compliance with a feeling so natural to the human mind, and from no motive of vanity, the Author of the following narrative will conclude this preface, by stating a few particulars of himself.
   He was born in the town of Negin, in Little Russia, on the 2d of April, 1773, of noble parents.
   Being destined for the navy, he was sent, when ten years of age, to the Marine Academy at Cronstadt, where he remained studying the theory of his future profession till he was fifteen.
   In the year 1788, having finished his education, he was made a midshipman in the Russian navy. In that situation he continued during the Swedish war, and was in almost all the general engagements in the Baltic, and especially in that memorable defence of Revet in the year 1790, when the Russian, squadron, under the command of admiral Basil Chichagoff, being moored across the bay, sustained the attack of the whole Swedish fleet, three times stronger than itself, arid obliged it at last to retire with the loss of two ships, of which one, the Prince Charles, was taken, and the other burnt in the offing of the bay.
   In 1793 he was made a lieutenant, and had the honour of being chosen, by her late imperial majesty, Catharine the Second, to be sent to England, to serve as a volunteer in the British navy.
   On his arrival in England, he devoted a few months to the study of the language of the country, and early in the spring of 1794 sailed for North America, in the L'Oiseau frigate, commanded by captain (now admiral) Robert Murray, together with the squadron under the command of the honourable George Murray, rear-admiral of the white.
   Near the coast of the United States he was at the taking of a large fleet of American ships, which were bound to France with provisions, under the convoy of the French frigate La Concorde, and other armed vessels. It was then he saw, for the first time, the activity of the British ships m chasing an enemy. By ber superior sailing, the L'Oiseau captured, besides many merchant-vessels, an armed brig, called Chigamoga, on board of which was Monsieur Belgard, a black general, well known in the French West-India islands.
   After this capture, the L'Oiseau repaired to Halifax to refit, and then sailed on a winter cruise. During this cruise she was blown off the coast of the Chesapeak, sprung a leak, and was carried to the West-Indies.
   There the writer of these memoirs was attacked by the yellow-fever, which raged through all the islands; and he has no doubt that he should have fallen a victim, but for the kindness of captain Murray, who not only gave up for his accommodation a part of his own cabin, but employed every means in his power to counteract the violence of the distemper.
   In the year 1795 he left the frigate L'Oiseau, and proceeded on a course of travels in America. He passed through the United States, from Boston to the Savanna; and, after spending the winter in Philadelphia, returned in the following year to Halifax; where, finding that his old commander and friend had sailed for England, he entered on board the frigate La Topase, commanded by captain Church. In this frigate he was in a very smart engagement with L'Elizabeth, a French frigate of equal force, which ended in the capture of the enemy.
   In the year 1797, he returned to England in the Cleopatra, commanded by captain (now admiral) Penrose. This frigate brought home admiral George Murray; who, having unfortunately been struck by apoplexy, was obliged to resign his command of the Halifax squadron, to the great affliction of all who served under him.
   As the chief object of the writer of this sketch was to see, if possible, every part of the world, he availed himself of an opportunity, which offered, of going to the Cape of Good Hope, in the Raisonnable line-of-battle ship, under the command of captain (now admiral) Charles Boyles. On his arrival at the Cape, he was appointed by admiral Pringle to the Sceptre, of sixty-eight guns, commanded by captain Edwards. Being however indisposed, he was obliged to reside chiefly on shore; and he afterwards travelled several hundred miles into the interior of the country, for the benefit of his health.
   In the year 1798, he sailed in the Sceptre, with the troops commanded by general Baird, which were dispatched from the Cape, on account of the well-known war with Tippoo Saib, for Madras, and afterwards for Bombay.
   There he received from his Imperial Majesty, Paul the First, a promotion to the rank of master and commander, with orders, at the same time, to return to Russia. In consequence of this, instead of going to China, as he had intended, he took his passage in a country ship, and in 1799 arrived in England, where he spent a whole winter.
   In 1800 he returned to Russia; and, on his arrival, was appointed to the command of a frigate; and the next year had the honour of being knighted with the military order of St. George of the fourth class.
   In 1802 the expedition round the world was planned. He bought and equipped both ships in England, and had the command of the Neva conferred on him. The voyage, as will be seen, occupied three years of his life; namely, from August 1803, to the same month in the year 1806.
   In 1807 he commanded a squadron in the Baltic, consisting of six sloops of war and. four cutters; and was the same year appointed commander-in-chief of all the private yachts and vessels of his Imperial Majesty.
   In 1808, he had also the command of a line-of-battle ship, of seventy-four guns; but, finding his constitution in a debilitated state, from the different climates he had visited, and the many years he had spent at sea, he found himself under the necessity, in 1809, of retiring from the service, with the half-pay of a post-captain.
  

LIST OF THE OFFICERS AND SEAMEN

BELONGING TO

THE SHIP NEVA, OF 350 TONS AND 14 GUNS.

  
   Commander.
   Urey Lisiansky.
  
   Lieutenants.
   Pavel Arboosoff.
   Petre Powaliahin.
  
   Midshipmen. Fedor Kowedyaeff.
   Vaseeley Berg.
  
   Master.
   Danilo Kaleeneen.
  
   Master's Mate.
   Fedool Malhzofi
  
   Physician.
   Moretz Laband.
  
   Surgeon's Mate.
   Alexey Mootofkin.
  
   Purser.
   Nicoly Korobeetzeen.
  
   Chaplain.
   Father Hedion
  
   Boatswain.
   Petre Roosacoff.
  
   Quarter-Masters.
   Oseep Averianoff.
   Semen Zeleneen.
   Petre Kaleeneen.
  
   Seamen.
   Vaseeley Maklashoff.
   Ivan Popoff.
   Fadey Nikeeteen.
   Petre Borisoff.
   Oolian Mihyloff.
  
   Seamen.
   Ivan Havreeloff.
   Stefan Konopleff.
   Andrey Hoodyacoff.
   Ilia Ivanoff.
   Vaseeley Stepanoff.
   Egor Salandin.
   Alexandre Potyarkin.
   Vaseeley Ivanoff.
   Petre Serheyeff.
   Fedot Feelatieff.
   Beek-morza Usoopoff.
   Emelian Kreevoshein.
   Andrey Wolodeemeroff.
   Ivan Andreyeff.
   Ameer Mansooroff.
   Dmetrey Zabiroff.
   Larion Afanassieff.
   Radion Epeefanoff.
   Potap Kvashneen.
   Ivan Vaseelieff.
   Ivan Alexeyeff.
   Ivan Horboonoff.
   Mitrofan Zeleneen.
  
   Gunners.
   Fedor Egoroff.
   Mosey Kolpakoff.
  
   Carpenter.
   Ivan Korukeen.
  
   Carpenter's Mate.
   Terentey Nekludoff.
  
   Sail-Maker.
   Stefan Vacooreen.
  
   Cooper.
   Pavel Pomeeleff.
  

DIRECTIONS TO THE BINDER.

  
   The Portrait, to face the Title.
   The Chart of the World, to face - Page 1
   The Chart of the Harbour of St. Catharine, to face - 40
   The Chart of the Washington Islands, to face - 61
   The Chart of the Harbour of St. Paul, to face - 144
   Plate I., to face - 150
   Plate II., to face - 163
   The Chart of the Island of Cadiack with its Environs, to face - 169
   View of the Harbour of St. Paul, to face - 191
   Plate III., to face - 205
   View of New Archangel, to face - 218
   The Chart of the Coast from Behring's Bay to the Sea-Otter Bay, to face - 221
   The Chart of the Harbour of New Archangel, to face - 235
   The Chart of the Island of Lisiansky, to face - 256
  

ERRATA.

  
   Page 12, line 6, for 13° 55', read 13° 28'.
   -, - 7, for 13° 28', read 13° 55'.
   22, - 7, for 26° 23', read 25° 23'.
   -, - 15, for the acceleration of No. 50, read that of No. 50.
   28, - 20, for evening, read morning.
   31, - 9, for harbour, read Fort
   46, - 21, for Blay, read Bligh.
   51, - 21, for thirty, read thirty-seven.
   Page 61, at the beginning of the chapter, for 26th, read 21st
   63, - 8, for west, read north-west
   115, - 11, To the list of islands, add Onihoo.
   169, - 9, for Dranker's Bay, read Drunkard's Bay.
   311, - 8, for the Cape, read St Helena, 328, last line, for g, read h.
  
  

 []

  

A

VOYAGE ROUND THE WORLD.

  

CHAPTER I.

PASSAGE FROM CRONSTADT TO FALMOUTH.

   Departure of the two Vessels. Russian Custom on taking leave of the Port-admiral. Arrival in Copenhagen Roads. Stay at Copenhagen. Method of purifying confined Air. Vessel of a curious Construction. Departure from Copenhagen. Separation of the two Ships in a Storm in the North Sea. Arrival at Falmouth.
  

1803. August. 7th.

   The two vessels were ready for sea, and moved from the harbour of Cronstadt into the roads on the 19th of July, 1803. They were however detained by contrary winds till the 7th of 7th. August, when, at ten o'clock in the morning, the ambassador, Mr. Rezanoff, his majesty's chamberlain, arriving on board the Nadejda, they departed with a fair southerly wind.
   We should have found the delay we had experienced tedious and disagreeable, but for the continual visits of our friends and relations, who were curious to see the preparations for so remote a voyage, and anxious for their countrymen, who were about to undertake it for the first time.
   On our passing the guard-ship, admiral HanicofF, port-admiral and commander in chief of Cronstadt, came on board to take leave of us; and, agreeably to the ancient Russian custom, he presented me with a loaf of bread and some salt; the first of which I carefully kept during the whole voyage, and gave him back, in perfect preservation, on my return to Russia.
   Being now in deep water, I ordered the ship's company to be mustered on the quarter-deck; and, in the best manner I was able, I represented to them the magnitude of the enterprise, the courage, patience, and perseverance we should be called upon to exert, in order to succeed in it, and the pleasure and benefit that would result to them from cordiality with one another, due obedience to their superiors, and the observance of perfect cleanliness in every thing relating both to the ship and to themselves.

11th.

   The wind varied much in its strength till half past ten in the evening, when it changed to the south-west, and continued there for four days, during which both ships were obliged to ply to windward, and could get no further than the Isle of Hogland. On the 11th, after a calm of some hours, it shifted to the south-east, and carried us briskly forward.
   During the prevalence of the contrary winds, I employed myself in arranging the distribution of provisions to my ship's company; and I regulated the allowance thus: - To each man per day, one pound of meat, one pound of biscuit, and a glass of brandy; and to each man per week, a pound of butter, a mess of pea-soup, a casha or grit pudding, and what might be deemed a sufficient quantity of mustard and vinegar. As we found, upon trial, that our beef, though lately prepared, was rather too salt, I gave orders for it to be regularly soaked two days previously to its distribution.

13th.

   On the 13th, though the wind fell considerably, we cleared the isth. Gulf of Finland, having passed Cape Dagerort the day before.
   We now found that our fresh water began to smell rather strong; it was therefore exposed to the air in a tub made for the purpose, and worked with Ostrige's purifying machine.

14th.

   On the 14th we had easterly winds and fine weather; and at five o'clock the next morning the Isle of Gottland appeared to the north-west. About this time one of our best seamen, in drawing up a bucket of water, fell overboard, and, notwithstanding our utmost endeavours to recover him, was unfortunately drowned. What will appear extraordinary in this accident is, that, though an expert swimmer, he sunk the instant he fell, and never rose afterwards.

16th.

   At half past five in the morning of the 16th, the thick weather clearing up, we descried the island of Bornholm at no great di-stance, and found ourselves in the midst of a multitude of ships of different nations, some beating to windward, and others, like ourselves, making the best of the fair breeze. I was much pleased to see that my ship was the best sailer amongst them.
   At nine in the evening the wind died away; and as the weather again grew thick, we could only approach the place called Stevens, and we came to an anchor not far from our companion, the Nadejda.

17th.

   At day-break of the 17th we got under way, and, with a light north-easter, reached the island of Draco, where we were becalmed, and we again cast anchor. The current was so strong, that I might have reached Copenhagen with ease, had I not deemed it proper to wait for captain Krusenstern. Fortunately, we lost nothing by the delay; an easterly wind soon springing up, which brought both ships into the Copenhagen roads at four in the afternoon.

19th.

   In the morning of the 19th our ships warped up close to the harbour, to take in with more ease the different things that had previously been provided for us. About midnight, a tremendous squall, accompanied with heavy rain and with thunder and lightning, came on, and raged till nearly day-light. As my marine barometer, however, had some time before indicated its approach, I was prepared for its reception, and sustained the shock without damage.
   While the articles alluded to above were conveying on board, I ordered all the water casks to be taken on shore, and well burnt; {For burning the inside of these water casks, shavings were used, and the burning was continued till the inside of the cask was converted to a coal, of about the eighth part of an inch thick. By this proceeding, and by putting a small quantity of charcoal powder into each cask, we had not a drop of bad water during the voyage. I kept a cask for trial; and on my return to Cronstadt, her majesty, the empress mother, having honoured me with a visit on board, tasted the water; and pronounced it, except in colour, to be as good as she bad ever drank.} and our beef, which, from having been put into unsound casks, had acquired a bad smell, to be re-salted.
   Every thing else on board being now overhauled, to be more 1803. safely stowed, I found, to my very great regret, the whole of our sour crout in the highest state of corruption. This proceeded from the negligence of the company's servants, who had put it into large and improper casks. We thus found ourselves deprived of a quantity of this valuable antiscorbutic vegetable, that would have been more than sufficient for half the voyage.
   At this place I had an opportunity of making acquaintance with Mr. Bugge, a gentleman whose name, as an astronomer, ranks very high. I ordered my chronometers to be taken on shore, and delivered to him, to be regulated: and I cannot forbear acknowledging, how much I am indebted to him for his polite attentions. He showed me the observatory of his Danish majesty, which I found very complete, and in the most perfect order; as well as his own collection of astronomical instruments, which were many in number, and all excellent. He rendered me a still more important service in giving me a receipt for purifying the air of any confined place by fumigation; which consisted of magnesia nigra and common, salt, in equal quantities, with a proportional mixture of oil of vitriol: and I found by experience, that it answered the purpose in the most satisfactory manner.
   Though I had many things to occupy me, in the necessary preparations for continuing our voyage, I still found leisure for gratifying my curiosity in the city of Copenhagen: but as this place has been described by many abler pens than mine, I will not obtrude upon the reader any detail of it, especially as my stay in it was so short. At the same time, I cannot pass over in silence a very curious ship, of 500 tons burthen, which I saw in the harbour, When fully loaded, she drew eight feet of water, and had not a single square timber in her construction, being entirely built of deal planks, with a stern in form of a reversed triangle, and a rudder on each side of its base. She had been built by Mr. du Crest about six years before, and at the time I saw her had already made several voyages, and withstood some very tempestuous weather. The commander of her assured me, that she sailed well, and was an excellent sea-boat.

Sept. 7th.

   At eight o'clock in the evening of the 7th of September, we came out of the harbour into the roads, to take advantage of the first favourable wind.

8th.

   Although it blew on the 8th from the north-west, and the weather was very unsettled, we got under way in the afternoon of that day, and arrived at Elsineur about eleven at night.

15th.

   From the prevalence of the wind in the same quarter, we were obliged to remain at anchor

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